Q. Which are the blood tests available for HIV?
Ans. Tests available for HIV detection in the blood are as follows:
- HIV p24 antigen
- HIV antibodies
- Western Blot test and PCR test
- CD4 & CD8
Q. Why is regular health check up important?
Ans. As we all know that PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE. Regular health check up will help us to detect the disease in its early stage even before the onset of symptoms. This gives the patient a better chance for treatment and cure.
Q. Whenever I get injured, the bleeding takes a long time to stop. Do I have to do any test for this? Is it abnormal?
Ans. Yes, it is necessary to consult the physician and get investigated for bleeding disorders as well as for liver diseases.
Q. What happens if the Hemoglobin is low ?
Ans. Low hemoglobin could be one of the causes of Anemia. Due to anemia patient might feel weak and may experience headache and fatigue.
Q. What is PAP smear test and is it painful ?
Ans. A PAP smear is a test in which doctor collects a small tissue sample from the cervix (External and Internal parts) and examines the same under the microscope to detect any cancerous cells or any infection. The procedure is almost painless and similar to routine gynaecologic (per vaginal) examination. Sometimes, the patient might feel some discomfort. The doctor inserts an instrument called a speculum (it looks like a duck's bill) into the vagina to see the cervix. Then, using a tiny spatula or brush, the doc takes a sample of cells from the cervix. The cells are sent to a lab for examination.
Q. What is Cerebrospinal Fluid ?
Ans. Cerebrospinal Fluid is the fluid which protects and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Q. What are the test related to Thyroid?
Ans. T3, T4, Free T3, Free T4 and TSH are main tests related to Thyroid functions, Anti Tg / Anti TPO.
Q. How frequently should a patient get a HbA1c test done?
Ans. Patient should do his/her HbA1c test once in 2-3 months.
Q. How many times in a day do I have to give a blood sample for HbA1c test?
Ans. Patient has to give blood sample only once in the day.
Q. Do I have to come fasting for HbA1c Test? (Glycosylated Hemoglobin )
Ans. Fasting is not required for HbA1c test. Patient can give sample at any time.
Q. What are the precautions to be taken before collecting semen sample ?
Ans. Before submitting, keep the following in mind:
- Abstinence should be ensured for 2-5 days.
- The total number of days since last ejaculation should be no longer than 5 days.
- Prolonged abstinence (greater than 5 days) may increase the numbers of dead or poorly motile sperm cells (necrospermia).
- For collecting the sample patient should wash his hands with soap and water.
- Sample should be collected by hand.
- Any contraceptive like Condom should not be used.
Q. Do I have to come fasting for a Triple Marker test and what are the pre-requisites for the same ?
Ans. Ans. No need to come fasting. Patient can give a blood sample at any time. But patient should give us the following information:
- Exact Date of Birth of patient
- Weight in Kg
- Height in cms
- Exact Date of Last Menstrual Period
- Xerox of Latest USG Report
Q. What does a Complete blood count test include?
Ans. Complete Blood Count will tell us Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell count, Red cell indices, Total White Blood Cell count, and Differential count of White blood cells, Platelet count.
Q. Why must we know our own blood group ?
Ans. For all practical and routine purposes, it is ideal to transfuse to the patient the same group of blood which he/she belongs to. It is only under very dire emergencies that we take O group as universal donor and AB groups as universal recipient. Under no circumstances O group can get any other blood except O. Similarly A group patient cannot be given B group blood and vice versa. So for donate blood or recovery blood transfusion right blood group must be known.
Q. How much time after lunch should one give his/her blood sample ?
Ans. Patient must give his/her blood sample (for post lunch sugar test) 2hrs after finishing the lunch (the time must be noted when patient start the lunch). The lunch should consist of routine meal which the patient has regularly.
Q. How to collect the sputum sample?
- The mouth should be free of any foreign matter. If available, the mouth may be rinsed with filtered or sterile water prior to collection.
- Sputum should be coughed from deep in the chest and coughed into the plastic collection bottle. To reduce the likelihood of transmission to others, patients are encouraged to collect their sputum specimens outdoors whenever possible.
- Preferably Sputum specimens can the collected in the early morning for proper examination.
- A hot drink or breathing deeply over a steam vessel (i.e. pan of boiling water) may help raise sputum.
- A specimen of 1-2 teaspoons in volume is adequate. The container should not be more than ½ full. Following collection, the top will be placed securely on the plastic bottle.
- Unless instructed otherwise, collect 3 sputum specimens on 3 consecutive days.
- The specimen bottle must be labeled with the patient’s name, date of birth and the date the specimen was collected.
- The laboratory slip must be completed with the patient’s name, date of birth and the date the specimen was collected.
- The plastic bottle and the lab slip will then be placed in the mailing tube with the screw top securely closed.
Q. How to collect 24 hrs urine sample ?
Ans. Empty your bladder when you first get up in the morning. DISCARD this Urine. Record the time on the container.
- From that time, save all urine up to and including the first morning specimen at the end of the 24 hours ( or other designated time period).
- During collection and until the specimen is brought to the laboratory, the urine container should be refrigerated or kept on ice(in a bucket).
- Record on the urine container, the time the last part of the specimen was collected.
- Be careful not to deposit toilet tissue in the specimen or allow it to become contaminated with fecal material.
- If the container has a preservative, (orange sticker or written), handle the container with caution. Specific instructions are available on the yellow label, and/or by calling the laboratory.
- Bring the container with the urine to the laboratory as soon as possible. As a part of some tests, a blood sample must also be collected. Check with the laboratory to verify that a sample is not needed.
Q. How should one collect a urine sample?
Ans. Urine sample should always be collected in the sterile clean container. Before collecting the sample, the patient has to clean the surrounding area (genitals). While passing the urine patient should discard the first part of the urine and collect the ensuing part. This sample is also called as Mid-stream urine sample not more than 2/3 of the urine container should be filled. The container should be labeled properly and the cap tightly screwed to avoid leakage of the sample.
Q. On which day of the menstrual cycle can the test for Anti Mullerian Hormone be done ?
Ans. Anti Mullerian Hormone test can be done on any day and at any time of the menstrual cycle.
Q. Do we require fasting for performing a Lipid Profile test ?
Ans. Yes At least 12 hrs over night fasting is required for this test. While fasting the person can have any amount of plain water.