Best Pathology Lab - Scientific Pathology



RADIOLOGY – 4D Diagnostic Services of Scientific Pathology

Scientific Pathology offers high-end Radiology and Imaging services in majority of its satellite laboratories and diagnostic centers using the latest X-Ray and Ultrasound equipment backed by highly trained and experienced Radiologists and Ultrasonologists. A perfect balance of technology and human skill enables scientific pathology to offer a wide range of services in this domain. These include:

Digital X-Ray

X-ray, a type of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, is often used for cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment. An X-ray uses electromagnetic radiation to make images. The image is recorded on a film, called a radiograph. The images produced appear light or dark, depending on the absorption rates of the different tissues. For example, dense materials, such as bone, show up as white on a film, while fat and muscle appear as varying shades of gray.

An X-ray exam is fast and painless. In low doses, X-rays can be used to construct images of structures inside the body to detect and stage a tumor. In higher doses X-rays can be used in radiation therapy to help destroy cancerous cells in the body.

The advantages of capturing and storing X-Ray Images digitally rather than on film are overwhelming. Digital x-ray imaging has many advantages:

The images can be stored in a very compact manner without risk of loss or deterioration in quality.

The images can be easily enlarged and "suspicious" areas of an image can be more easily studied. The images can be easily retrieved, and can be transmitted electronically to an expert or to another medical practitioner in the same hospital or to an insurance company for reimbursement purposes.

GE 16-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner

This state-of-the-art four-dimensional CT scanner produces detailed cross-sectional X-ray images of structures within the body. It also enables our radiologists to plan treatment in accordance with patients' breathing patterns. The GE 16-slice CT scanner is three to four times faster than conventional machines. Thus, patients are able to get in and out of their appointments faster. Additionally, this technology often produces pictures in much greater detail than can be seen in regular X-rays.

Low Dose, High Resolution

The GE BrightSpeed Elite Select 16 slice CT features up to 0.35mm isotropic at an optimized dose. The high resolution is made capable by the HiLight matrix detector and GE's Volara digital DAS. The Volaara digital DAS enhances processing power while reducing electronic noise from 30 to 40%.

Power of the Performix Tube

The Performix tube, featured on the GE BrightSpeed Elite Select 16, provides high power for mult-organ acquisition, sub-millimeter slice thickness, and sub-second scanning. The Performix tube also offers exceptional beam quality and patient throughput. The Performix Tube is now enhanced with SmartTube technology, providing improved longevity and reliability.

Ultra Compact

The GE BrightSpeed Elite Select 16 slice CT scanner features gantry components that have been reduced in size, making it easier, and in some instances possible, to fit in the same area as many of the smaller single-slice CT scanners. The compact design coupled with the LightSpeed VCT technology offers great benefit to both patients and practitioners.

Application capabilities unmatched

Ge Ls16 can do all CT applications in equivalent diagnostic accuracy and image quality as that of 64 for all practical radiology studies

  • Routine head- 6 rotation(3 sec)
  • Chest Abdomen-a single breath hold of less than 10 sec.
  • Liver multiphase study- single breath hold/ phase
  • CT pulmonary angio- less than 5 sec
  • CT coronary angio single breath hold -16 sec
  • Whole aorta – less than 10sec
  • Renal angio less than 8 sec
  • Cerebral angio with DSA - 10 sec
  • Peripheral angio (1400mm) in 20 sec
  • Virtual scopy -5-10 sec depending on coverage
  • CT Perfusion
  • CT Dentascan
  • Calcium score-same as that of 64 slice

We use mammography to detect tumors and abnormal tissue in the breast. This X-ray exam of the breast generates pictures of the breast tissue, and can detect and evaluate breast changes. A mammogram can also locate tumors that are too small or too deep to be found by breast examination. Once a lump is discovered, mammography can be key in evaluating the lump to determine if it is cancerous. If a breast abnormality is found or confirmed with mammography, additional breast imaging tests such as ultrasound ( sonography ) or a breast biopsy may be performed. A biopsy involves taking a sample(s) of breast tissue and examining it under a microscope to determine whether it contains cancer cells. Many times, mammography or ultrasound is used to help the radiologist or surgeon guide the needle to the correct area in the breast during biopsy.

DEXA Bone Densitometry

DEXA bone densitometry is most often used to diagnose osteoporosis, a condition that often affects women after menopause but may also be found in men. Osteoporosis involves a gradual loss of calcium, causing the bones to become thinner, more fragile and more likely to break. The DEXA test can also assess your risk for developing fractures. If your bone density is found to be low, you and your physician can work together on a treatment plan to help prevent fractures before they occur. DEXA is also effective in tracking the effects of treatment for osteoporosis or for other conditions that cause bone loss. Bone density testing is strongly recommended if you:

  • Are you a post-menopausal woman and not taking estrogen.
  • Have a personal or maternal history of hip fracture or smoking.
  • Are a post-menopausal woman who is tall (over 5 feet 7 inches) or thin (less than 125 pounds).
  • Are a man with clinical conditions associated with bone loss.
  • Use medications that are known to cause bone loss, including corticosteroids such as Prednisone, various anti-seizure medications such as Dilantin and certain barbiturates, or high-dose thyroid replacement drugs.
  • Have type 1 (formerly called juvenile or insulin-dependent) diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease or a family history of osteoporosis.
  • Have high bone turnover, which shows up in the form of excessive collagen in urine samples.
  • Have a thyroid condition, such as hyperthyroidism.
  • Have experienced a fracture after only mild trauma.
  • Have had x-ray evidence of vertebral fracture or other signs of osteoporosis.

Dexa Bone Densitometry

DEXA bone densitometry is performed to assess the bone mineral density in specific target areas or the whole body and is especially useful in post-menopausal women and older people.

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease affecting the skeleton, which causes a reduction in the amount of bony tissue. Bones are weakened as these tissues are reabsorbed or taken up by local cells. At the core, bones become less dense, on the perimeter, cortical bones lose thickness. Complications from osteoporosis arise as bones become thinner, more porous and susceptible to fractures.

Types of Osteoporpsis:

Type I or Post – Menopausal Osteoporosis Usually occurs in women menopause. At this time the ovaries produce less estrogen, a female sex hormone. In the absence of estrogen, bone reabsorption decreases, dropping overall bone mass below the maintenance density level, leading to a high risk of fractures.

Type II or Age Related Osteoporosis

Age Related Osteoporosis – Inflicts both women and men aged more 70 years. Older people have added risk of low bone mass because bone density peaks at the age of 35 and decreases gradually. The ability to absorb calcium from the intestine decreases, thus reducing the calcium inside the body. Also, older people are slightly Vit D deficient, leading to decreased calcium absorption from the intestine. Bone formation responds to physical stress and thus, less activity also decreases bone strength.

Effect of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis may go unnoticed if it is asymptomatic. Signs that there has been a reduction in bone mass include: Lower back pain. Loss of teeth and height over time often accompanied by a stooped posture. Minimal trauma fractures, i.e., fractures occurring without the application of significant force. As bone density decreases the risk of fracture increases.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Electrocardiogram) is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical activity of the heart over time. Its name is made of different parts: electro, because it is related to electrical activity, cardio, Greek for heart, gram, a Greek root meaning "to write". In the US, the abbreviation "EKG" is often preferred over "ECG", while "ECG" is used universally in the UK and many other countries.

Electrical impulses in the heart originate in the sinoatrialnode and travel through the heart muscle where they cause contraction. The electrical waves can be measured at selectively placed electrodes (electrical contacts) on the skin. Electrodes on different sides of the heart measure the activity of different parts of the heart muscle. An ECG displays the voltage between pairs of these electrodes, and the muscle activity that they measure, from different directions, also understood as vectors. This display indicates the overall rhythm of the heart, and weaknesses in different parts of the heart muscle. It is the particularly abnormal rhythms caused by damage to the conductive tissue that carries electrical signals, or abnormal rhythms caused by levels of dissolved salts (electrolytes), such as potassium,

In myocardial infarction (MI), the ECG can identify damaged heart muscle. But it can only identify damage to muscle in certain areas, so it can't rule

The ECG cannot reliably measure the pumping ability of the heart; for which ultrasound-based (echocardiography) or nuclear medicine tests are used.

Echocardiography (ECHO)

What is an echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram (also called echo) is a test used to assess the heart's function and structures. A transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on your chest at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the heart tissues, where the waves echo or bounce off of the heart structures. The transducer picks up the reflected waves and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the echoes into an image of the heart walls and valves.

An echocardiogram can utilize one or more of four special types of echocardiography:

M-Mode echocardiography: This is the simplest type of echocardiography. It produces an image that is similar to a line tracing rather than an actual picture of heart structures. M-mode echo is useful for measuring heart structures, such as the heart's pumping chambers, the size of the heart itself, and the thickness of the heart walls.

Doppler echocardiography: This Doppler technique is used to measure and assess the flow of blood through the heart's chambers and valves. The amount of blood pumped out with each beat is an indication of the heart's functioning. Also, Doppler can detect abnormal blood flow within the heart, which can indicate a problem with one or more of the heart's four valves or with the heart's walls.

Color Doppler: Color Doppler is an enhanced form of Doppler echocardiography. With color Doppler, different colors are used to designate the direction of blood flow. This adds information for the interpretation of the Doppler technique.

2-D (2-dimensional) echocardiography: This technique is used to "see" the actual structures and motion of the heart structures. A 2-D echo view appears cone-shaped on the monitor, and the real-time motion of the heart's structures can be observed. This enables the physician to see the various heart structures at work and evaluate them.

3-D (3-dimensional) echocardiography: This technology provides a 3-dimensional view of the heart using sound waves projected at various angles.


Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, involves exposing part of the body to high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. Ultrasound exams do not use ionizing radiation (x-ray). Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

Ultrasound imaging is usually a painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Ultrasound scanning can help in almost any domain of disease identification. It is useful in pregnancy, it can be done for the breast, lower abdomen, upper abdomen- liver, pancreas etc, heart, bones, joints, neck etc. Ultrasound is a valuable tool and in the right hands can clear out most doubts related to the diagnostic queries that we are faced with.

Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. Four-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound is 3-D ultrasound in motion.

A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood as it flows through a blood vessel, including the body's major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs and neck. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to visualize the speed and direction of blood flow through a blood vessel.

Power Doppler is a newer technique that is more sensitive than color Doppler and capable of providing greater detail of blood flow, especially in vessels that are located inside organs. Power Doppler, however, does not help the radiologist determine the direction of flow, which may be important in some situations.

Spectral Doppler. Instead of displaying Doppler measurements visually, Spectral Doppler displays blood flow measurements graphically, in terms of the distance traveled per unit of time.

Digital Orthopantomography (OPG)

This is a special method for obtaining radiographs of the teeth- bearing jaws, both upper and lower. A specially constructed machine rotates around the jaw-bones, thus giving us an extremely good idea about the structure of the jaw-bones and are useful in a wide-variety of conditions including infections, tumors, congenital abnormalities, pre-implant evaluation and trauma. Cephalogram is an x-ray of the face, obtained so that accurate measurements of the face can be performed.


Understanding how your heart responds to physical stress such as exercise is an important indicator of your health. If your doctor suspects you have a serious heart problem, he may recommend a treadmill test to measure your heart function during exercise. Although complications of the test are rare, it is important for detecting certain medical conditions and guiding treatment programs.

Coronary Artery Disease

A treadmill test is an important screening tool for detecting coronary artery disease, a potentially fatal condition the symptoms of which often go undetected. Coronary artery disease is a type of heart disease that causes plaque to build up inside the arteries that supply your heart with oxygen and blood. As a result, your arteries narrow, reducing blood flow to the heart, causing a heart attack or chest pain known as angina. Eventually, the condition weakens the heart muscle, resulting in heart failure or an arrhythmia --- an irregular heart rhythm, according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.


A heart rhythm that is too fast, too slow or irregular is a sign of an arrhythmia. If you have any of these symptoms, your doctor will suggest a treadmill test to diagnose the condition. Although arrhythmias are common in older adults and harmless in most cases, they can be life threatening, making early detection key for treatment. If you have had a heart attack, have high blood pressure or suffer from heart failure, you are at increased risk of developing an arrhythmia.

Exercise Program

While a treadmill test is beneficial for detecting serious heart conditions, the test is also helpful in determining how much exercise is safe for you, especially if you have a heart condition or other risk factors for heart disease. The test is particularly useful if you have coronary artery disease or recently had a heart attack and are thinking of beginning an exercise program. The amount of exercise you can do will depend on your test results and the condition of your heart muscle.

Treatment Plan

After you've been diagnosed with a heart condition such as coronary artery disease, an arrhythmia or a heart valve problem, your doctor may recommend a treadmill test to determine what type of treatment is best for you. He may also use the test to assess how effective a treatment is, whether the treatment relieved your symptoms and to detect any further symptoms of your condition in planning and monitoring your recovery. In some cases, a treadmill test may help your doctor determine if you may need a heart transplant and even the timing of heart surgery.


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