Phlebotomy is the process of drawing blood samples by injecting a needle into a vein. Draw blood in the colour coded Vacutainer tube. For serum or plasma draw about 2–2.5 times the requested volume. For serum, allow the blood to clot for at least 30 mins. and separate by centrifugation. For plasma, mix the blood with the anticoagulant by gently inverting the tube 8–10 times and separate by centrifugation.
Identification of Patient’s Sample
Body posture can influence the concentration of various analytes in blood. The redistribution of the fluids takes place when the person changes from supine to upright position resulting in increase of analytes concentration by approx 5-15% compare to supine position. The values of Hb, PCV, RBC, WBC & Platelets increase with the change in body position from recumbent to sitting and to erect and the differences are statistically significant.
The changes in concentration of analytes as a result of exercise are largely due to shift of fluid between intravascular and interstitial compartments, changes in hormone concentration stimulated by change in activity and by loss of fluid due to sweating, ALT, AST, Creatinine & Phosphate increases significantly after strenuous exercise.
Evacuated tubes greatly enhanced the precision and accuracy of test results by reducing errors in collection. "A laboratory test is no better than the specimen, and the specimen no better than the manner in which it was collected." Colour coded ‘Vacutainer' tubes are used according to the specimen type required namely serum, plasma or whole blood.
Grey Top: Potassium oxalate and Sodium fluoride
Green Top: Sodium heparin
Lavender Top: Potassium EDTA
Red Top: No preservative, gel or anticoagulant
Red/Golden Yellow Top: Gel barrier for serum separation (SST)
Lemon Yellow Top: Acid citrate dextrose (ACD)
Royal Blue Top Acid washed metal free with EDTA (plasma/whole blood) and without EDTA (serum)
Blue Top (Light Blue): Sodium citrate
Draw blood in the colour coded Vacutainer tube. For serum or plasma draw about 2–2.5 times the requested volume. For serum, allow the blood to clot for at least 30 min. and separate by centrifugation. For plasma, mix the blood with the anticoagulant by gently inverting the tube 8–10 times and separate by centrifugation.
Laboratory has a procedure defined in Sample Collection Manual (SP – SCM) for safe
transportation of the patient samples in-house and from outside locations
All lab staff collecting samples from outside has been adequately instructed on proper packing of patient samples and biomedical waste items before transportation of the same to lab to ensure general safety during transportation.
Dedicated sample collection bag have been provided to all collection staff to ensure that the sample is transported
In case of noncompliance due to time, spill or temperature resulting in compromising the integrity of the patient sample, the patient, hospital is informed of the same and fresh sample requested.
Reduction in errors. Bar code systems reduce the number of data entry errors. This has been proven in studies showing the typical error rate for manual data entry to be one error in 300 characters. Savings in Time. Beside being more accurate than manual data entry, the entry of data using bar codes is much faster. Whereas routine manual data entry for a particular customer order may take a few minutes, transferring this information via bar code can take just a few seconds. Bar coding tubes prior to sample draw is a good laboratory practice.
Specimen Handling For Routine Submission